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Standardised Hypnosis in Oral and
Maxillofacial Surgery.
Three-Year Experience and First Study Results

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Dirk Hermes, Samer G. Hakim, Peter Sieg

Abstract: Surgical treatment of diseases of the oral and maxillofacial region under local anaesthesia is quite
commonly restricted by limited compliance from the patient. Hypnosis could be an alternative to
treatment under pharmacological sedation or general anaesthesia. Own preliminary investigations
prove a high potential level of acceptance of this treatment option by oral and maxillofacial patients.
Within a 3-year period, 340 procedures under combined local anaesthesia / tape recorded hypnosis
were carried out on non-preselected patients between the ages of 13 and 87. The surgical range covered
oral, plastic and reconstructive, oncological, septic and trauma operations.
Hypnosis turned out to be a reliable and standardisable method with high patient consent. Remarkable
improvements in treatment conditions for both patient and surgeons were achieved in 96.5% of
all procedures. In selected cases of polypathic but very cooperative and susceptible patients, major
surgery could be performed without general anaesthesia. Following positive experiences during the
surgical routine of our department, first clinical studies were initiated which proved the effectiveness
of hypnosis-induced intraoperative effects in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

Keywords: Hypnosis, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Anxiety, Stress reduction, Clinical Study

Beliefs, Values and the Vacuum of Choice
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Dr Patrick Jemmer
BA (Hons) CertPgStud MA (Cantab) MA (Oxon) PhD (Birmingham) EurChem EurPhys MRSC MInstP MIMA

Abstract: In this article a definition of the concept of ‘beliefs,’ ‘values’ and ‘attitudes’ is first presented,
their formation and manifestation are then described, and the relationships between them are
delineated. This is followed by a discussion of their crucial role in a therapeutic context, and an investigation
of mechanisms for fundamental therapeutic change using Neuro-linguistic programming
methodologies, concentrating on ‘submodality change’ and ‘reframing,’ together with a presentation
of illustrative examples. This article concludes that one main task of the therapist is to instigate an
appropriate relationship with the client, to respect and respond to their needs, and to help effect congruent
and lasting positive outcomes in order to allow them to expand to fill the wonderful ‘vacuum
of choice’ arising from being in control of one’s own beliefs, values and attitudes.

Keywords: Beliefs, values, attitudes, Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP), meta-filters, submodalities,
reframing, parasympathetic activation, client-centered therapy, individuation, choice.

Client-Centered Parts Therapy
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C. Roy Hunter

Abstract: In this article I overview the concept of parts therapy and its variations (ego state therapy, voice
dialogue, subpersonalities, etc.). Experts have spent years employing similar techniques based on the
concept that we all have various personality parts. Charles Tebbetts based his parts therapy on Paul
Federn’s work, but evolved it into a client-centered approach and combined it with deep hypnosis in
order to help clients resolve inner conflicts. I define the “client-centered” approach and explain why it
is different from most variations of parts therapy.

Keywords: Parts therapy, client-centered, hypnosis, inner conflicts, ego state therapy, Charles Tebbetts,

An Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (ICS)
Account of Hypnosis

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Simon C. Duff, Ph.D.
Division of Clinical Psychology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GB.

Abstract: This paper puts forward a theoretical account of hypnosis utilising Interacting Cognitive Subsystems
(ICS), a distributed architecture for human cognition. The account hinges on two commonly
occurring and inherent aspects of the ICS framework, “interlock” and “buffered processing”, which
when combined are proposed as having the explanatory power to account for the range of empirical
findings and subjective experiences that are associated with hypnosis. Interlock refers to a situation
where the unchanged output of subsystem processing is used as the input for another subsystem
in a feedback loop. Buffered processing refers to non-automatic cognition, the process whereby
new schemata are developed and through which process thoughts and behaviours can change. The
combination of these two processes allows the development of new schemata which incorporate new
information that would otherwise be ignored, thus allowing for behavioural change. Based on this
theoretical explanation it should be possible to develop hypnotic scripts and procedures that more
accurately target a client’s specific issues.

Keywords: Interacting Cognitive Subsystems, Interlock, Buffered processing

Hypnosis Meets Santeria:
A Case Report

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Alex Iglesias, Ph.D.
Adam Iglesias

Abstract: In the U.S. and Latin America there are several million practitioners of Santeria, an
African-Cuban religion which is also a health care and mental health delivery system for numerous
Hispanics in major U.S. cities. Despite such prevalence, the medical professions remain ignorant of
the underpinnings of this esoteric, dynamic and complex system used by so many to heal their maladies.
This is partly due to the fact that this religion, along with its health care system, is shrouded in
secrecy and misconceptions.
This article attempts to offer the reader basic knowledge about Santeria in order to familiarize
the practitioner of hypnosis with the assumptive world of this burgeoning patient population. The
seemingly unbridgeable differences between the assumptive worlds of hypnosis and Santeria can be
overcome using principles, understandings, and language presented in this article. A case report of
a terminally ill practitioner of Santeria is reported to illustrate the successful integration of hypnotic
strategies with this esoteric health care system. This is the first published report of a rapprochement
between hypnosis and Santeria.

Keywords: Hypnosis, Santeria