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The Use of Hypnotic Dreaming in Psychotherapy
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Dr Talal Al Rubaie, MSc, MD, UKCP (Reg.)

Abstract: This article details the rationale behind using hypnotic dreaming in the treatment of various psychological
disorders. It addresses as well the scientific underpinning of hypnotic dreaming. The clinical significance,
indications and contra-indications of this treatment modality are pointed out, and the different methods of
working with hypnotic dreaming are discussed. An illustrative case example is presented to highlight the
usefulness of using Ericksonian linguistic patterns in formulating a hypnotic dream suggestion.
Clinical Articles

The Use of Hypnosis in Boosting the Effect of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue
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Jeff Wailes

Abstract: This study looks at the possible increase in the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) in the
amelioration of the symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) by the inclusion of hypnosis. Undertaken
by a practising psychotherapist, the study was carried out in a clinic environment.
The study took the form of quasi-experimental, pre-test/post-test design with two groups undergoing therapy
and a third 'control' group providing reports but not undergoing therapy. Of those undergoing therapy one of
the two groups experienced hypnosis within the duration of the therapy. The study extended over twelve
weeks. In addition all participants completed two Lifestyle Questionnaires. One completed prior to the onset of
therapy and the other at the end of the twelve-week period.
Comparison of qualitative and quantitative data gathered, during the study, suggests possible theories as to
the links between fatigue and stress. The effects of stress on the potential exhaustion of physical resources
essential to the efficient working of the endocrine and nervous systems leads on to an analysis of material from
previous studies relating to the possible connection between dysfunction in the interplay between the
Hypothalamus, Pituitary and Adrenal glands (the HPA axis) and CFS.
The resulting data illustrates that those participating in therapy reported increased energy levels following
treatment. Those within the control group showed little or no improvement. However, there was only marginal
difference in increased energy level between those receiving hypnosis within their therapy and those that did

Hypnotic and Self-Hypnotic Approaches: To Comprehensive Cancer Care
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Gérard V. Sunnen, M.D.

Abstract: Adjunctive hypnotic therapy in cancer may be directed to many levels of its manifestations. Physical
symptoms of cancer, the most common of which are pain and fatigue, and the physical effects of its treatment
may be alleviated to enhance quality of life. Hypnotherapy can significantly help patients through medical
procedures and operations. Hypnosis may also be woven into psychotherapy to assist the uniquely personal
adjustments facing each individual. Self-hypnosis allows patients to actively contribute to their treatment.
Finally, hypnosis and self-hypnosis may be recruited to stimulate healing spiritual discoveries.

Elegant Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) and Hypnosis: Is an Elegant Combination Feasible and Beneficial?
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Avy Joseph

Abstract: Psychologist Albert Ellis, Ph.D. first articulated the principles of Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT)
in 1955. According to REBT theory at the core of emotional disturbance of humans is a biological tendency to
transform desires, wants and preferences into rigid, dogmatic and absolute beliefs. Ellis differentiates
between elegant and inelegant approaches to therapy and considers hypnotherapy as an inelegant approach.
Hypnotherapy is a popular and well-known form of therapy. Research has demonstrated its many clinical
applications. Hypnosis however is not therapy, rather hypnotherapy is the use of hypnosis in a therapeutic
setting. How hypnosis is conceptualised determines its use and application within a therapeutic setting.
This dissertation attempts to examine the use of hypnosis in REBT and whether it can be elegant. It will define
elegant and inelegant REBT practice, discuss some of the many definitions of hypnosis and ascertain which of
these definitions Ellis appears to advocate in order to understand why he regards hypnosis as inelegant. In
response this dissertation will question the validity of his perspective.
It is likely that some REBT practitioners may have clients requesting hypnosis and some hypnotherapists
trained in REBT may be interested in working within an elegant framework. This dissertation will attempt to
highlight the benefits of using hypnosis with REBT so that clients in an REBT setting are not dissuaded from
seeking hypnotherapy and in converse hypnotherapists can be confident that they can work in an elegant

Analysis of a Clinical Hypnosis Session - Therapist and Patient Perspectives
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Peter J. Hawkins, University of Sunderland, England
Jari Suviola, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland
Vojna Tapola, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland
Ana Rita Almeida, ISMAI - University Institute of Maia, Portugal

Abstract: A demonstration psychotherapy session with a volunteer was audio taped and later transcribed. The therapist
was unaware of the patient's problem and primarily facilitated the process of ideodynamic healing using a
number of hypnoanalytic techniques. The paper presents a post-session analysis of the experiences of the
therapist and the patient, as well as providing information regarding the actual interventions, the sequential
process of therapy, and the therapeutic outcomes. The main conclusions drawn from the case study indicate
that the experiences of the therapy can be quite different for the therapist and patient, and that the patient's
initial perceptions of the efficacy of treatment change over time. The implications of this are discussed with
respect to developing more effective therapeutic sessions.

Hypnotherapy in a Specialist Palliative Care Unit: Evaluation of a Pilot Service
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Carol Curtis

Abstract: There is evidence that hypnotherapy may have an application in the palliative care setting by relieving stress
and helping patients to cope with their illness and the prospect of dying. It may also be of benefit to health
professionals working in this sometimes stressful field. This article reports on the audit of a pilot hypnotherapy
service for patients, carers and staff at a specialist palliative care unit. The audit explored the demand for
hypnotherapy, the practicalities of providing the service and identified benefits as perceived by the clients and
the therapist. Evaluation methods included questionnaires for quantifiable and qualitative data. The study was
conducted over five months and involved 11 clients (seven staff and four patients). The main findings depicted
unanimous positive coping and relaxation benefits to the clients. At the end of the therapy, 82 felt it had
assisted in improving the presenting problem and 91 felt it had been of benefit in general. Further issues are
discussed such as the therapeutic relationship, non-attendance and the environment used during the sessions

Trance and Hypnosis Defined with Modern Logic: Applications to Hypnotherapy
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Klaas Altena
Kampen, the Netherlands

Abstract: Modern logic can help to define trance and hypnosis. Logic constructs different formal languages. Trance is
defined as the mental state in which thoughts are modelled according to one of these formal languages.
Hypnosis is defined as the application of techniques that change the accessibility to these languages for a
person. The treatment of two cases of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, two cases of Delusional Disorder, and
an analysis of some aspects of a mainstream approach to hypnosis demonstrate the applicability of this
theoretical approach.